Analysis of the production process and development trend of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

The performance of the lithium battery cathode material directly affects the performance of the lithium ion battery, and its cost also directly determines the cost of the battery. There are many industrial production processes for cathode materials, the synthesis route is relatively complex, and the control of temperature, environment, and impurity content is also relatively strict. This article will introduce the production process and development trend of lithium battery cathode materials.

lithium ion batteries1

Lithium battery requirements for cathode materials:

High specific energy, high specific power, less self-discharge, low price, long service life and good safety.

Lithium battery cathode material production process:

The calcination technology adopts the new microwave drying technology to dry the positive electrode material of lithium battery, which solves the problems that the conventional lithium battery positive electrode material drying technology takes a long time, makes the capital turnover slow, the drying is uneven, and the drying depth is not enough. The specific features are as follows:

1. Using microwave drying equipment for lithium battery cathode material, it is fast and fast, and deep drying can be completed in a few minutes, which can make the final moisture content reach more than one thousandth;

2. The drying is uniform and the drying quality of the product is good;

3. The cathode material of lithium battery is highly efficient, energy-saving, safe and environmentally friendly;

4. It has no thermal inertia, and the immediacy of heating is easy to control. The cathode material of microwave sintered lithium battery has the characteristics of fast heating rate, high energy utilization rate, high heating efficiency, safety, hygiene and pollution-free, and can improve the uniformity and yield of the product, and improve the microstructure and performance of the sintered material.

lithium ion batteries2

General preparation method of lithium battery cathode material:

1. Solid phase method

Generally, lithium salts such as lithium carbonate and cobalt compounds or nickel compounds are used for grinding and mixing, and then the sintering reaction is carried out. The advantages of this method are that the process is simple and the raw materials are readily available. It belongs to the method that has been widely researched, developed and produced in the early stage of lithium battery development, and the foreign technology is relatively mature; Poor stability and poor batch-to-batch quality consistency.

2. Complex method

The complex method uses an organic complex to first prepare a complex precursor containing lithium ions and cobalt or vanadium ions, and then sinter to prepare. The advantages of this method are molecular-scale mixing, good material uniformity and performance stability, and higher capacitance of the positive electrode material than the solid-phase method. It has been tested abroad as an industrialized method for lithium batteries, but the technology is not mature, and there are few reports in China. .

3. Sol-gel method

Using the method of preparing ultrafine particles developed in the 1970s to prepare the positive electrode material, this method has the advantages of the complex method, and the prepared electrode material has a greatly improved electric capacity, which is rapidly developing at home and abroad. a way. The disadvantage is that the cost is high, and the technology is still in the development stage.

4. Ion exchange method

LiMnO2 prepared by ion exchange method has obtained a high reversible discharge capacity of 270mA·h/g. This method has become a new research hotspot. It has the characteristics of stable electrode performance and high capacitance. However, the process involves energy-consuming and time-consuming steps such as solution recrystallization and evaporation, and there is still a considerable distance from practicality.

The development trend of lithium battery cathode materials:

As an important part of lithium batteries, my country’s power lithium battery cathode material industry has developed rapidly. With the development of the new energy vehicle industry and the energy storage industry, it is expected that the lithium battery cathode material industry will become the main driving force for the growth of the cathode material industry in terms of subdivided lithium iron phosphate and ternary materials in the future, and will usher in more opportunities. and challenges.

lithium ion batteries3

In the next three years, lithium batteries will maintain stable and sustainable development, and the total demand for lithium batteries is expected to reach 130Gwh in 2019. Due to the continuous expansion of lithium battery application fields, lithium battery cathode materials continue to develop and expand.

The explosive growth of new energy vehicles has brought about the sustained and rapid development of the overall lithium battery industry. It is estimated that the global lithium battery cathode materials are expected to exceed 300,000 tons in 2019. Among them, ternary materials will develop rapidly, with an average annual compound growth rate of more than 30%. In the future, NCM and NCA will become the mainstream of automotive cathode materials. It is expected that the use of ternary materials will account for about 80% of automotive materials in 2019.

Lithium battery is the future development direction of battery, and its cathode material market has a promising development prospect. At the same time, the promotion of 3G mobile phones and the large-scale commercialization of new energy vehicles will bring new opportunities for lithium battery cathode materials. Lithium battery cathode materials have a broad market, and the prospects are very optimistic.

Post time: Apr-18-2022